Ayesha Siddiqa

Ayesha Siddiqa

Ayesha Siddiqa Ph.D.


I am an independent scholar based in Islamabad with an expertise in military affarirs, militancy and radicalism. Since 1992, I have focused on civil-military relations, military decision-making, political economy of security, and political Islam. I am an author of two books – on arms  rocurement decisionmaking and political economy of the military. Although my main interest is research and writing due to which I have done extensive fieldwork in my region of interest, I have also taught at universities in Pakistan and the US. I have also been a civil servant for twelve years during which I also worked as Director of Naval Research with the Pakistan Navy and later at a senior position as advisor to the
chairman Pakistan’s National Accountability Bureau (NAB). My research work for the past 3-4 years is focused on militancy and radicalism in Punjab and Sindh, an issue that allowed me to examine governance, political and service delivery structures in these regions. I contribute articles in academic journals and opinion piece in New York Times, The Hindu, Indian Express, Dawn and Express Tribune.


  • 1996 – Ph.D. - Department of War Studies, King’s College, University of London, UK. The
  • doctoral thesis focused on weapons procurement and defense decision-making in Pakistan.
  • 1992 – M.A. - Masters in Political Science from the University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan.
  • 1984 – B.A. – Bachelors from the Kinnaird College for Women, Lahore, Pakistan with majors in English Literature and History.

Technical Skills:

  • Proficient in the use of computer software, including Microsoft Office packages.


  • English, Urdu/Hindi, Punjabi, and Saraiki (fluent).

Work in Progress:


  • Currently working on a manuscript of a book that details the relationship between power, violence and religion in Pakistan. This will not only examine the phenomenon at the level of the state and key players but also at various levels of the society. I hope to view radicalism and violent extremism beyond the existing static binaries. It documents the complex collisions and interplays between neoconservative Islam on the one hand, traditional piety, and what is considered as impious worlds by radical elements. Its objective is to locate the jihadist movement within its social and cultural setting and as part of the evolution of a society—rather than to seek to examine it as if it were a pathology that needed studying in a laboratory environment.
  • Islamization of the Judicial Process and the Legal Community in Pakistan – Chapter for an edited volume by Routledge on contemporary handbook on Pakistan edited by edited by Aparna Pande, Research Fellow and Director Initiative on the Future of India and South Asia.

Professional Experience

I. Research, Writing & Consultancy: 1993-2015


  • 1. Team Leader for Management Systems International, September 2013 – March 2014. Wrote two papers on drivers of extremism in South Punjab focusing on trader-merchants, youth and women.
  • 2. Consultancy for UNDP, May 2012: To prepare a conceptual framework to understand the linkage between security and development and train UNDP staff working in tribal areas and Afghanistan.
  • 3. Pakistan Fellow, September 2004 – August 2005. Produced a book-size monograph on the theory and practice of military’s internal economy expressed in the form of military business operations or MILBUS. This is an ongoing project to be completed by the end of 2005. The study will be a contribution to the existing body of literature on civil-military relations and Pakistan’s politics and economy. Using the case study on Pakistan, the work examines the political-economic dimension of civil-military relations.
  • 4. Columnist for Dawn, Karachi, The Friday Times and Daily Times, Lahore, June 2000 – todate. Written weekly column for the prominent English daily, Dawn up until May 2000 and continue to write a weekly column for the Pakistani English language weekly, The Friday Times. Currently writing a weekly column on Monday for the Daily Times on political and security
  • related issues.
  • 5. Visiting Fellow, Sustainable Development Policy Institute (SDPI), Islamabad, Pakistan, February – August 2004. Produced a research paper on militarization of Pakistan’s state and society focusing on the impact of such development on human rights in the country.
  • 6. Correspondent Jane’s Defence Weekly, February 2003 – September 2004. Filed regular news reports and analysis pieces on defense related issues. The analysis piece on the US-Pakistan relations predicted changes perceived by segments of the Pakistan military that have a bearing on the ongoing war against terrorism. Also, undertook detailed research on the development of the fighter aircraft JF-17 Thunder co-production, co-development project between Pakistan and China.
  • 7. Post-Doctoral Fellow at the Cooperative Monitoring Center, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico, June – November 2000. Authored research paper on maritime cooperation between India and Pakistan with a special focus on the use of monitoring technology to strengthen policy tools. Developed the concept of maritime communication centers between the two navies to solve the ongoing problem of fishermen. 3
  • 8. Ford Fellow at the Bonn International Center for Conversion, Germany, November 1999 – May 2000. Wrote a report on Pakistan military’s business activities. The paper was published in a compilation of case studies on military as an economic actor. This is the first ever study on military’s commercial activities in Pakistan.
  • 9. Director of Naval Research, June 1998 – September 1999. Conducted research for input into decisions made by the Chief of Naval Staff and the PLANS division of the Pakistan Navy on the procurement of the F-22P frigates from China, operations of the US P-3C Orion ASW-capable aircraft, production of two types of submersibles. Also contributed towards naval restructuring that was targeted to save millions of dollars for the Navy and the government.
  • 10. Consultant for the Small and Medium Enterprises Center at the Lahore University of Management Sciences, (LUMS), Lahore, October 1997 – March 1998. Completed a report on the role of defense production on the growth of small and medium enterprises in Pakistan.
  • 11. Consultancy for the British-American Security Information Council, London, January 1997 – October 1997. Authored a paper on the illegal manufacture of small arms and light weapons in Pakistan. This was the first academic study on the subject in reference to Pakistan.
  • 12. Research on the military and local business, June 1996 – February 1997. Conducted a survey in seven cities in Pakistan analyzing the linkage between military and local business. The objective was to see if base closure would have an impact on the local economy.
  • 13. Consultancy for the Regional Center for Strategic Studies, Colombo, Sri Lanka, January – August 1996. Wrote a paper on Pakistan’s defense spending analyzing it from the standpoint of whether military expenditure is a public good or not. The paper was published later.
  • 14. Research at the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI), Sweden and at DISAM, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Dayton, Ohio, USA. Two brief stints, first in March – April 1993 at SIPRI, Sweden to study the theory of arms procurement, and second, at the Defense Institute of Security Assistance Management in 1994 to analyze the US foreign military sales and foreign military financing to Pakistan and other countries.

II. Teaching Experience:

  • 1. Charles Wallace Fellow at St Antony’s College, Oxford University (October 2014 – June 2015)
  • 2. Visiting Professor at the Department of South Asian Studies at the School of Advanced International Studies (SAIS), Johns Hopkins University (January – June 2010) I taught a a course on “Pakistan: Evolution of a Post-Colonial State”. The course offers insight into Pakistan’s security, politics and foreign policy making using a post-colonial framework.
  • 3. Visiting Professor at the Department of South Asian Studies, University of Pennsylvania, USA. (January – June 2008). I taught two courses: (a) graduate course on Pakistan’s Political Economy and (b) undergraduate course on ‘Modern History of Afghanistan and Pakistan’.
  • 4. Visiting Faculty at the Department of Defense and Strategic Studies, Quaid-e-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan, March 2006 – June 2006. Taught research methodology to Masters class. The taught component comprised of 3 hours of teaching every week and conducting two exams and checking assignments on the subject.
  • 5. Lectures at universities in the US, September 2004 – May 2005. Lectured at various American universities including Tufts, Michigan – Ann Arbor, SAIS – Johns Hopkins, George Washington and Columbia. The topics varied from gender politics in Pakistan to the influence of religious fundamentalism on India-Pakistan relations.
  • 6. Visiting Faculty at the Department of International Relations, Quaidi Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan, January 2001 – December 2002. Taught three courses to graduate classes at the Department of International relations, Islamabad on military technology, weapons systems and strategy, defense economics and India-Pakistan defense policies.
  • 7. Visiting Faculty at the Lahore University of Management Sciences (LUMS), Lahore, September – November 2001. Taught a course on military organization, state and society to under-graduate class.

III. Public Sector Work Experience:

  • 1. Advisor to Chairman, National Accountability Bureau, November 2011 – to date. To advise the Chairman NAB regarding formulation of strategies regarding prevention of corruption, coordinate with Transparency International Pakistan and media. Worked on system re-engineering of the various regulatory frameworks of the government of Pakistan especially the Pakistan Media Regulatory Authority (PEMRA).
  • 2. Director of Naval Research, June 1998 – November 1999. As head of the Pakistan Navy’s research wing my responsibilities included conducting analysis of the service’s weapons procurement, preparing standard operating procedures (SoPs) for weapons procurement, arms production and sales, developing links with foreign countries for weapons sales and production, assessment of regional geo-politics and organizational restructuring.
  • 3. Deputy-Director Audit (Defense Services), May 1997 – June 1998. Audited a budget of Rs. 136 billion (US $ 2.3 billion) of the defense services of Pakistan. Also carried out special case studies of the Naval War College and military’s housing schemes in Lahore, Pakistan.
  • 4. Assistant Controller Military Accounts, May 1996 – May 1997. Prepared and maintained accounts for Rs. 30 billion spent as pay and allowances of the Pakistan Army. The work involved knowledge of government accounting methods.
  • 5. Assistant-Director PTCL Accounts, April 1990 – September 1992. Prepared and maintained accounts and carried out disbursement of funds for the Pakistan Telecommunication Corporation (PTCL). The company is the largest public sector profit-earner for the government.
  • 6. Officer-Probationer (under-training), November 1988 – April 1990. Completed on-job training as an officer of the Department of the Auditor-General of Pakistan. The work involved training in the concepts of management of public sector organizations, budget-making, accountancy and auditing.

IV. Other Activities:

Organized international conference on “Competing Religious Narratives in Pakistan: Can
Islam be an Agency for Peace” at the Department of South Asia Studies, School of Advanced
International Studies, Johns Hopkins University, Washington, DC (May 10, 2010).

Facilitator, Naval Track-II between India and Pakistan, 2001- 2005 – One of the results of my
research at CMC, Sandia National Laboratories on maritime confidence-building and cooperation
between India and Pakistan was establishment of the first naval track-II group which included
eight senior retired naval officers from both countries including four former chiefs of naval staff.
Funded by the Canadian and American governments, the group met annually in Malaysia and in
Sri Lanka.

Fellowships & Grants:

  • 1. Charles Wallace Fellowship, (2014-15) research fellowship in politics and IR at St. Antony’s College, Oxford.
  • 2. Research grant by the Norwegian Center for Strategic Research and Analysis, Oslo to write a research paper “New Frontiers of Militancy and Radicalism in Punjab”. The project involved extensive fieldwork all over the province engaging with political leadership, grassroots organizations, religious community and a range of other stakeholders.
  • 3. Research grant by Heinrich Boll Foundation, Germany to conduct survey based study titled: ‘Red Hot Chilli Peppers Islam – From Pop Music to Pop Islam: Drivers of Radicalism Amongst Youth in Elite Universities in Pakistan’ This research paper analyzes the state of socio-political thinking amongst youth attending elite universities in the three major cities of Lahore, Karachi and Islamabad. One of the basic conclusions of the study is that there are traces of latent-radicalism amongst this segment of youth and a growing political conservatism. It challenges the notion that it is poverty alone which is a major driver of latent-radicalism.
  • 4. Teaching Fellowship at the School of Advanced International Studies, Johns Hopkins University, Washington DC. (Spring 2010)
  • 5. Woodrow Wilson Pakistan Fellowship – Awarded the 2004-05 fellowship to conduct research and write a book on political economy of militarization in Pakistan
  • 6. Asia Foundation Fellowship – Awarded the Asia Fellowship by the University of Pennsylvania Institute for Advanced Study of India in 2002. The research project related to a study of nuclear stability in the Asian continent. The study would look at the strategic perspectives of China, 6 Pakistan and India, especially the interplay of exogenous and endogenous factors and look at the possibility of stability within the Asian continent.
  • 7. MehboobulHaq Research Award – Research award given for year 2000-2001 to conduct joint research on issues of non-traditional security in South Asia. The research focused on the problems of governance and its impact on national security. The paper was published by the Regional Center for Strategic Studies in May 2001 as policy paper 19.
  • 8. Ford Fellowship – Awarded in 1999, the fellowship facilitated 6 months of research at the Bonn International Center for Conversion, Germany.
  • 9. Post-Doctoral Fellowship – Awarded by the University at New Mexico in 2000, the fellowship allowed research at the Cooperative Monitoring Center, Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico, USA. The project analyzed possibilities of confidence-building between India and Pakistan during years of crisis.
  • 10. Kodikara Research Award – Received in 1996, the reward was used to compile a report on Pakistan’s defense spending. The paper was submitted to the Regional center of Strategic Studies in 1996 for publication. The paper was finally published in 2000 as policy paper 12 comparing India and Pakistan’s defense expenditure.


Books and Chapters

  • 1. Pakistan’s Modernism. Chapter contributed in Shaun R. Gregory (ed), Democratic Transition and Security in Pakistan. (Routledge, - in process of publication).
  • 2. Pervez Musharraf: Yet Another Dictator. Chapter contributed in Roger D. Long (ed), A History of Pakistan. (Oxford University Press, 2015).
  • 3. Pakistan’s Civil-Military Balance: The Fourth Round. Chapter contributed in Rajesh Basrur and Kartik Bommakanti (eds), Demilitarizing the State: South and Southeast Asian Experience. (Singapore: S. Rajaratnam School of International Studies (RSIS) Monograph No: 25, 2012).
  • 4. The Evolution of Civil-Military Relations in South Asia. In E. Sridharan (ed). International Relations Theory and South Asia. (Oxford University Press, 2011). A theoretical and comparative study of civil-military relations in India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka and Bangladesh.
  • 5. Can Non-Provocative Defense Work for Pakistan? In Navnita Chadha-Bahera (ed)., International Relations in South Asia: A Search for an Alternative Paradigm (Sage Publications, 2008). Pp. 235-251.
  • 6. Military Inc, Inside Pakistan’s Military Economy. (Pluto Press, April 2007). The book looks at Pakistan military’s involvement in the economy and defines the nature of a peculiar kind of hidden 7 military capital, globally and in Pakistan. This is the first detailed study of the political economy of Pakistan’s security state (ISBN: 0745325459).
  • 7. Pakistan's Arms Procurement and Military Buildup, 1979-99. In Search of a Policy. (Palgrave Press, March 2001). The book analyses Pakistan’s arms procurement and military buildup decisions. (ISBN:0333731727).
  • 8. The Development of Security Studies in Pakistan. In Inayatullah, Rubina Saigol and Pervez Tahir, (eds), Social Sciences in Pakistan: A Profile. (Islamabad: Council for Social Sciences, 2005). This was a UNICEF project.
  • 9. National Security, Democracy failure and Continuing Militarization of State and Society. Chapter in Militarizing State, Society and Culture in Asia. Critical Perspectives. (Hong Kong: Asian regional Exchange for New Alternatives (ARENA), 2005).
  • 10. Is Missile Non-Proliferation a Possibility in South Asia? Paper published in the South Asian Survey, 11/2, July-December 2004.
  • 11. Pakistan’s Military expenditure Decision-making Process. Published as a chapter in the book published by BICC, Germany, titled: Demystifying the Peace Dividend (ed) Joern Brommelhorster, Feb. 2000.
  • 12. Arresting Light Weapons Proliferation in Pakistan: Is There a Way Ahead? Published in the Commonwealth Human Rights Initiative book: Over a Barrel – Light Weapons & Human Rights in the Commonwealth, London, Nov. 1999.


  • 1. Pakistan’s Modernity: between the military and militancy. In the Economic and Political Weekly, December 17, 2011.
  • 2. Pakistan’s Counterterrorism Strategy: Separating Friends from Enemies. In ‘The Washington Quarterly, Vol 34, No. 1, Winter 2011.
  • 3. “Jihadism in Pakistan: The Expanding Frontier.” Published in the Journal of Internationl Affairs, (Columbia University Press, Fall/Winter 2009, Vol 43, No. 1). Pp. 57-72.
  • 4. “Conservatively Hip.” Article on the rise of latent radicalism amongst youth in elite universities in Pakistan. The article was based on a survey based study conducted for a research project by the Hienrich Boll Foundation. (Newsline, October 2010).
  • 5. “Terror’s Training Ground.” Article on the rise of militancy in South Punjab, Pakistan published in Newsline, September 9, 2009 (http://www.newsline.com.pk/NewsSep2009/coverstorysep.htm) 8
  • 6. “A Different Breed: Not All Jihadis are Product of Militant Madrassahs.” In Newline, September 9, 2009.
  • 7. “The Two Faces of Jihad.” In Newline, September 9, 2009 (http://www.newsline.com.pk/NewsSep2009/coverstory2sep.htm)
  • 8. “Brothers-in-Arms – Sipah-e-Sahaba Pakistan (SSP), Lashkare Jhangavi (LeJ), Jaish Mohammad (JeM), and Lashkare Taiba (LeT). In Newline, September 9, 2009 (http://www.newslinemagazine.com/2009/09/brothers-in-arms/).
  • 9. “Pakistan – Between Military and Militants”. Article published in World Today, the journal of the Royal Institute of International Affairs in April 2007.
  • 10. “Soldiers of Fortune”. Article published in Newsline, December 2006
  • 11. “The New Land Barons.” Cover story published in ‘Newsline,’ Vol. 19, No. 01, July 2006.
  • 12. “General Figures: How Much is a General Worth in Real Estate Terms?’ ‘Newsline,’ Vol. 19, No. 01, July 2006.
  • 13. “Pakistan-Iran-Afghanistan Relations: Looking Beyond the Troubled Triangle”. Middle East Program Occasional Paper series, Spring 2005 (Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars).
  • 14. “Pakistan Army to reduce numbers.” In Jane’s Defence Weekly, May 05, 2004.
  • 15. “Pakistan’s Security: Problems of Linearity”. In South Asian Journal, January – March 2004. http://www.southasianmedia.net/Magazine/Journal/pakistan_security.htm
  • 16. “US offers non-Nato Ally status to Pakistan.” In Jane’s Defence Weekly, March 24, 2004.
  • 17. “Pakistan test fires missiles.” In Jane’s Defence Weekily, October 15, 2003
  • 18. “Is the US-Pakistan honeymoon over? “ In Jane’s Defence Weekly, January 15, 2003
  • 19. “Pakistan Army inducts Ghauri.” In Jane’s Defence Weekly, January 15, 2003
  • 20. “Political Economy of National Security” Article published in the Economic and Political Weekly, November 2-9, 2002
  • 21. “Pakistan awaits India's next move.” In Jane’s Defence Weekly, November 06, 2002
  • 22. “Pakistan and the USA revive joint exercises.” In Jane’s Defence Weekly, October 30, 2002
  • 23. “Pakistan conducts second missile test.” In Jane’s Defence Weekly, October 16, 2002 9
  • 24. “Can Pakistan Turn Around?” Article published in the Journal of Asian Affairs, ISSN1607- 0631, June 2002. The article looks at the possibility of reduction in religious extremism in Pakistan and the role of the state in achieving the objective. (http://www.asianaffairs.com/Frame/frameanalysis.html)
  • 25. “Pakistan's export plans face major hurdles.” In Janes Defence Weekly, March 27, 2002
  • 26. “Pakistan’s Defence Industry: Shifting Gears.” Article published in the RUSI Journal, October 2001.
  • 27. “Governance in Plural Societies and Security: An Overview.” RCSS Policy Paper 19, May 2001.
  • 28. “Nuclear Navies.” Article published in the Bulletin of Atomic Scientists, Sept.-Oct. 2000
  • 29. “Defense Expenditure in South Asia: India and Pakistan.” RCSS Policy Studies Paper 12, (2000)
  • 30. “Pakistan’s Military Rule.” Article published in the journal of the European Institute of Asian Studies, May 2000  http://www.eias.org/bulletins.cfm?art_id=203&bul=54)
  • 31. “Pakistan’s Military expenditure Decision-making Process.” Published as a chapter in the book published by BICC, Germany, titled: Demystifying the Peace Dividend (ed) Joern Brommelhorster, Feb. 2000.
  • 32. “Pakistan’s Defense Industry: An Effort Towards Self-Reliance?” Published in the Journal of Defense and Peace Economics, University of York, Vol. 10, 1999.
  • 33. “Arresting Light Weapons Proliferation in Pakistan: Is There a Way Ahead?” Published in the Commonwealth Human Rights Initiative book: Over a Barrel – Light Weapons & Human Rights in the Commonwealth, London, Nov. 1999.
  • 34. “Curbing the Weapons of Civilian Destruction in South Asia.” Joint paper published by the International Center for Peace Initiatives, Mumbai, India, 1999. This paper aimed at drawing attention of the policy community, in particular parliamentarians, in South Asia to the issue. The project is planned in tune with the role of ICPI as a bridge between research actions and policy
  • actions.
  • 35. “Prospects of Russia-CIS-Pakistan Security Dialogue.” Paper published in Yaderny Control, a journal of the Institute of Policy Research in Russia, April 1998. The research focused on conventional arms transfers.
  • 36. “Ad hocracy and Decision-Making in Pakistan: A Case Study of Defence Production Projects and the Nuclear Programme.” Published in the Indian Defence Review, August 1996.10
  • 37. “Management of Light Weapons Production in Public and Private Sectors: A View from Pakistan.” Paper prepared for the Pugwash Workshop on ‘Controlling Light Weapons Proliferation’ held in India and published in February 1996 by the British American Security Information Council (BASIC), Washington/London.
  • 38. “Kashmir: The Jama'at-i-Islami Factor.” Published in Defence Today, India September/November, 1995.
  • 39. “China-Pakistan Military Links, 1979-Present.” Published in Defence Today, India: Vol. 3(2), July/September, 1995.
  • 40. “Letter from Pakistan.” Published in the Security, Technology and Arms Control Newsletter, March 1995.


  • 1. ‘Red Hot Chilli Peppers Islam – Drivers of Radicalism Amongst Muslim Elite’ Paper published by the Heinrich Boll Stiftung, 2010.
  • 2. “Pakistani State and Its Power Structure”. Paper presented at the conference at Jamia Milia Islamia on March 9-10, 2007, ‘Re-making the State: Conflicts and Peace Processes in South Asia’.
  • 3. “Baluchistan: A Crisis of Development.” Paper presented at the seminar on ‘Why Baluchistan Matters’ organized by the Foreign Policy Center, UK at the House of Commons, December 04, 2006. The paper focused on the political economy of development in Baluchistan and in other parts of the world.
  • 4. “Mercenary Soldiers in the Asia-Pacific.” Paper presented at the meeting of the Third Expert Group of the UN on Mercenary Soldiers, Geneva, December 2004.
  • 5. “Conventional Force Modernization Trends in South Asia” Paper written for the Asia-Pacific Center conference held on ‘Conventional Arms Rivalry in the Asia-Pacific,’ held at Honlolulu, Hawaii, October, 2001.
  • 6. “Security Environment in South Asia: Need for Security Sector Reforms” Seminar paper delivered at the Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto Shaheed Institute for Science and Technology (SZABIST), Karachi, October 10, 2001.
  • 7. “Naval Arms Control in South Asia” Paper presented at the workshop on the ‘Indian Ocean’ organized by the Centre for Foreign Policy, Dalhousie University at Halifax, July 06-08, 2001.
  • 8. “Maritime Environment in South Asian Waters – Setting the Scene” Paper presented at the first national conference to be held in Pakistan on ‘maritime security and confidence-building,May 22, 2001 11
  • 9. “Economic and Cultural Trends and Its Impact on Pakistan’s National Security” Paper presented at the Asia-Pacific Center Conference, Hawaii, April 16-18, 2001.
  • 10. “Religious Extremism in Pakistan and Demand for Small Arms and Light Weapons” Paper presented at the Project Ploughshares Conference on ‘Small Arms and Light Weapons: The Demand Dynamics’ held in Toronto, March 14-17, 2001.
  • 11. “International Arms Market Trends and Third-Tier Manufacturers” Paper presented at the IDEAS-2000, Karachi, Nov. 14-17, 2000.
  • 12. “Possibilities of Defense Conversion in Militaristic Societies: A Case Study of South Asia” Paper written for the conference on ‘The Economics of Military Expenditure in Developing and Emerging Economies,’ Middlesex University Business School, London, March 13-14, 1998.
  • 13. “Development of Indigenous Weapons Production in Pakistan: Impact on the Growth of Small and Medium Enterprises” Paper written for the Lahore University of Management Sciences to be published under the KAF working paper series.
  • 14. “Defense Procurement Decisions: A Case Study of Pakistan” Paper presented at the conference on ‘Converting Military Resources for Human Development’ organised by the Bonn International Centre for Conversion (B.I.C.C) at Bonn, Germany.
  • 15. “South Asia: The Security-Development Imbalance and Defence Conversion” Paper presented at the workshop on ‘Security, Technology, Arms Control’ organised by the RCSS, Sri Lanka at Kandy, September 11-19, 1997.
  • 16. “Fiscal and Public Policy Management Issues” Paper presented at the symposium on “Military Expenditure in Developing Countries: Security and Development” co-sponsored by the Canadian government and the Development assistance Committee of the OECD at Ottawa, Canada, March 18-19, 1997.
  • 17. “Sustainable Reduction in Military Expenditure-Its Impact on Conflict Resolution in South Asia” Paper presented at the conference in Karachi organised by the Department of International Affairs, Karachi University and Hanns Seidel Foundation, December 1-2, 1996.
  • 18. “Light Weapons Proliferation and Control in South Asia: The Three Dimensions.” Paper presented in the British American Security Information Council (BASIC) conference on Light Weapons held in London, Jun. 29-Jul. 02, 1996.
  • 19. “Treatment of Religious Minorities in South Asia: Case Studies of Christians, Ahmadis and Shias in Pakistan and Muslim in India” Paper presented at the 17th 'ISODARCO' conference on 'ethnicity, racism and xenophobia,' organised by the Italian Pugwash Group, International School on Disarmament and Research on Conflicts, in Italy held in August 1995.
  • 20. “Future of Nuclear Non-Proliferation in South Asia in the 1990s” Paper presented at the 45th Pugwash Conference on Science and World Affairs held in Hiroshima, Japan, July 1995. 12

Op-ed Pieces : 

  • 1. “Is PAF Ready for It?” (an analysis of PAF’s preparedness during the current crisis). Published in The Friday Times, January 4-10, 2002 (http://www.thefridaytimes.com/main31.htm)
  • 2. “Is Limited War Possible in South Asia.” Published in Dawn, December 25, 2001 (http://www.tehelka.com/channels/currentaffairs/2001/dec/25/ca122501pak.htm)
  • 3. “The Problem of Madrissahs (*Religious Schools)” The Dawn, December 13, 2001
  • 4. “No Buyers for Pakistan Navy’s Submarines” Published in the Friday Times, December07- 13,2001 (http://pub49.ezboard.com/fpakistanidefencedotcomfrm7.showMessage?topicID=46.topic)
  • 5. “JCSC: Has it Become Moribund?” Published in the Friday Times, December 14-20, 2001
  • 6. “National Security at Lower Cost.” Published in The Friday Times, November 30-December 06, 2001
  • 7. “The Future of Jihadis” The Dawn, November 30, 2001
  • 8. “Complexities of the Afghan Operation” The Dawn, November 10, 2001
  • 9. “War on Terrorism, Other Side” The Dawn, October 11, 2001
  • 10. “Afghan Policy – Need for Review” The Dawn, September 26, 2001
  • 11. “Security Sector Reforms in South Asia” The Dawn, August 15, 2001
  • 12. “Agra Summit and Nuclear Risk Reduction in South Asia.” The Dawn, August 10, 2001. http://www.dawn.com/2001/07/10/op.htm
  • 13. “Another Deadly Missile Race” http://www.nautilus.org/sand/Updates2000/Jul26.html
  • 14. “After the Hainan Standoff,” The Dawn, April 18, 2001. http://www.fas.org/news/taiwan/2001/taiwan-010425-china.htm
  • 15. “Corruption in Arms Purchases” The Dawn, April 12, 2001.
  • 16. “Realities of the Emerging Naval Threat” The Dawn, February 27, 2001.
  • 17. “The Shanghai Five” The Dawn, January 12, 2001.
  • 18. “Rationalising Defence Spending”, “Defence Conversion: Making Space for Socio-Economic Growth” and “A Way to Curtail Defence Spending” Three articles written for the special report on defence spending published by The News, September 7, 1997.
  • 19. “The Politics of Nuclear Proliferation-Part I” daily The Nation, Lahore, February 28, 1996.
  • 20. “The Politics of Nuclear Proliferation-Part II” daily The Nation, Lahore, February 29, 1996.
  • 21. “F-C1: A New Fighter Aircraft” daily The Nation, Lahore, November 3, 1995.
  • 22. “Future of Defence Self-Sufficiency in Pakistan: The Collaboration Approach-Part II” daily The Nation, Lahore, October 16, 1995.
  • 23. “Future of Defence Self-Sufficiency in Pakistan-Part I” daily The Nation, Lahore, October 14, 1995.